Chilli is cultivated as a spice crop. Chilli is used fresh, dried and powdered in all three forms. Chillies have a lot of importance among all types of vegetables because without Chilli, no matter how well prepared any vegetable, it will look pale. Furthermore, the chemical capsaicin is found in Chilli, which makes its taste pungent. Therefore, it is an essential part of the taste of our food. In addition, Chilli contains elements of phosphorus, calcium, vitamin A, and C, which are also beneficial for our body from the point of view of health.
Soil, Climate & Temperature
Black loam soil containing organic matter is required in chilli cultivation. It is necessary to have proper drainage land for the cultivation of Chilli because due to the waterlogging condition, its plants suffer from many diseases, due to which the yield is more affected. The P.H. of the land in its cultivation. The value should be between 5.5 and 7.
Chilli cultivation can be done in any climate, but a wet-dry environment is considered suitable for its cultivation. The hot and cold weather is harmful to its crop. Apart from this, frost falling in winter is also detrimental to the chilli crop.
Initially, chilli plants require an average temperature to germinate. Its plants grow well at normal temperatures. Chilli plants can tolerate a maximum temperature of 35 degrees in the summer and a minimum temperature of 10 degrees in the winter. A higher or lower temperature is harmful to the growth of crops.
For a good yield of Chilli, the field should be ploughed appropriately and prepared by giving the proper amount of fertilisers. For this, the area should be well pressed deeply. Due to this, the old remains of the field will be destroyed. Moreover, farmers use any powerful Mahindra tractor for even ploughing. After this, leave the field open like this for a few days. Due to this, the soil of the area will get sunlight properly. After this, put 25 to 30 carts of old cow dung manure per hectare in the ground and get it ploughed. Due to this, cow dung will be mixed well in the field’s soil. You can also use compost manure instead of cow dung if you want.
The transplanting of chilli plants is done in both plain and flat places. If you want to transplant its plants into the meadows, you should prepare the meadows by keeping a distance of three feet in the field. After this, plants should be transplanted, keeping a distance of one and a half feet between each plant. Next, ten feet long beds should be prepared for planting plants on flat land. Plants should be planted in these beds, keeping a distance of two and a half feet so that there is enough space for the plants to spread.
It is considered more beneficial to transplant chilli plants in the evening because the plants germinate well and give good yields by transplanting at this time. An average temperature is required for transplanting chilli plants, so in the winter season, its plants should be done in the middle of October and November, while February and March are considered suitable for transplanting plants in the summer.
Chilli plants need more irrigation because their plants need moisture in the field at the time of germination. Therefore, the first irrigation of chilli plants should be done immediately after transplanting and we can take the help of suitable machinery, such as any New Holland tractor, for effective irrigation. Chilli plants require two to three irrigations a week during the summer season. Additionally, irrigation is needed for 10 to 15 days in the winter season. Therefore, irrigation of chilli plants should be done only when required during the rainy season.
Weed control in chilli cultivation is done naturally by weeding. If weed control is not done correctly, the plant’s growth stops, and the yield is also affected. You can also use the chemical method for weed control. For this, you should spray the appropriate amount of oxyfluorfen.
Chillies are harvested at different times, depending on their advanced variety. After this, they are sent to sell in the market. Based on variety in a one-acre field, 35 to 50 quintals of native species are yielded. Apart from this, a yield of 250 to 300 quintals can be obtained from hybrid varieties. The market price of Chilli varies from Rs 15 to 40 per kg, depending on the array. According to which farmer brothers can earn up to one lakh from a one-time crop of Chilli in one acre of field, the same can easily earn up to 3 to 4 lakh rupees by cultivating hybrid varieties.